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Geothermal vegetation of the Waikato region, 2014

TR 2015/07

Report: TR 2015/07

Author: Wildland Consultants Ltd

About this report

Approximately 74 per cent of the extent of New Zealand’s geothermal vegetation occurs within the Waikato region.  This study provides an updated inventory of the current distribution and extent of geothermal vegetation in the region.

Sixty-four sites, located within 15 geothermal fields have been described, mapped, and assessed for significance, using existing information, information collected during field surveys of 25 sites, and assessment of 2012 aerial photographs. 

Read or download the report

Geothermal vegetation of the Waikato region, 2014 [PDF, 14 MB]

Note: Original hardcopies with A3 maps are best obtained directly from Wildlands (at a cost of $195, incl GST and P&P), to ensure best quality map reproduction.


1 Introduction
2 Previous work 
3 Methods
3.1 Existing information
3.2 Ecological districts
3.3 Bioclimatic zones
3.4 Field survey
3.5 Kānuka identification and taxonomy
3.6 Geophysical properties
3.7 Geothermal vegetation and habitat classes, and vegetation and habitat types
3.8 Threats/modification/vulnerability
3.9 Site mapping
3.9.1 Mapping geothermal wetland habitat
3.9.2 Mapping of non-vegetated raw-soilfield
3.10 Historical site changes
3.11 Ecological evaluation
3.12 Data analysis
3.13 Presentation of results
4 Defining and delineating geothermally influenced vegetation
4.1 Geothermal wetlands
4.2 Non-vegetated raw-soilfield
4.3 Atmospheric influence
5 Ecological context
6 Geothermal sites and vegetation in the Waikato region
6.1 Changes in geothermal site extent since 2012
6.2 Assessment by Local Authority District
6.3 Assessment by Ecological District
7 Natural dynamics
8 Human disturbance and associated threats
9 Future management
9.1 Regulatory controls
9.2 Buffers and connections
9.3 Land status and protection
9.4 Ecological restoration
  References and selected bibliography
1 Site descriptions
2 Year of most recent field inspections for each site
3 Site for which field inspections where not undertaken as part of this study
4 Geophysical assessments of surface geothermal manifestations at 20 sites in the Waikato region
5 Changes in extent of geothermal sites between 1940s/1950s and 2007 aerial photographs
6 Notes on the vascular flora of geothermal areas
7 Definitions of vegetation structural classes used in this report
8 Abbreviations and symbols
9 Common plant names used in text
10 Updated Waikato Regional Council criteria for the evaluation of indigenous vegation and habitats of indigenous fauna
11 Updated Waikato Regional Council criteria for the assessment of relative ecological significance of indigenous vegetation and habitats of indigenous fauna
12 Threat classification system
13 Definition for each data field in the GIS shapefile
14 Vegetation class maps of geothermal areas in the Waikato region.