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  Council » Policies and Plans » Waikato Regional Policy Statement: Te Tauākī Kaupapahere Te-Rohe O Waikato » Operative Waikato Regional Policy Statement - Te Tauākī Kaupapahere Te-Rohe O Waikato » Glossary


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*denotes definitions from the Resource Management Act

italic entries are explanations of Maori terms used in the Regional Policy Statement rather than strict definitions. 


Accidental discovery protocols –establish the steps to be taken in the event that historic heritage (such as archaeological or wāhi tapu sites) is unexpectedly discovered during subdivision, use or development.

Ahi kā – central to the concept of ahi kā is the notion of occupation, occupying a place with iwi, or hapū to maintain a representational presence on the part of whānau. This concept is linked with mana whenua, the idea of maintaining strong links to areas by occupation gives a sense of higher and senior priority over decision making.

Allocable flow – the amount of water in a water body that can be allocated for take or use.

Amenity values * those natural or physical qualities and characteristics of an area that contribute to people’s appreciation of its pleasantness, aesthetic coherence, and cultural and recreational attributes.

Annual exceedance probability – the estimated probability of an event occurring in any one year – for example, a 1% annual exceedance probability means an event that has an estimated probability of occurrence of 1 per cent in any one year.

Atua deities and personifications of supernatural beings. Examples of these include Ranginui and Papatūānuku.

Biodiversity – the variability among living organisms, and the ecological complexes of which they are a part, including diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.

Built environment – buildings, physical infrastructure and other structures in urban, rural and the coastal marine area, and their relationships to natural resources, land use and people.

Catchment – the area of land that provides water to a water body.

Coastal environment – the environment where the coast is a significant part or element, comprising at least:

  1. a) the coastal marine area;
  2. b) islands within the coastal marine area;
  3. c) areas where coastal processes, qualities or influences are significant, including coastal lakes, lagoons, tidal estuaries, salt marshes, coastal wetlands, and the margins of these;
  4. d) areas at risk from coastal hazards;
  5. e) coastal vegetation and the habitat of indigenous coastal species, including migratory birds;
  6. f) elements and features that contribute to natural character, visual qualities or amenity values;
  7. g) items of cultural and historic heritage in the coastal marine area or on the coast;
  8. h) inter-related coastal marine and terrestrial systems, including the intertidal zone; and
  9. i) physical resources and built facilities, including infrastructure, that have modified the coastal environment.

Coastal marine area * the foreshore, seabed, and coastal water, and air space above the water:

  1. a) of which the seaward boundary is the outer limits of the territorial sea;
  2. b) of which the landward boundary is the line of mean high water springs, except that where that line crosses a river, the landward boundary at that point shall be whichever is the lesser of-
    1. i) 1 kilometre upstream from the mouth of the river; or
    2. ii) The point upstream that is calculated by multiplying the width of the river mouth by 5.

Commercial development – the range of commercial activities including office, retail and commercial service provision.

Common marine and coastal area – the marine and coastal area (“MCA”) excluding private title and conservation areas. The MCA is defined in the Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Act 2011 as meaning:

  1. a) the area that is bounded –
    1. i) on the landward side, by the line of mean high-water springs; and
    2. ii) on the seaward side, by the outer limits of the territorial sea; and
  2. b) includes the beds of rivers that are part of the coastal marine area (within the meaning of the Resource Management Act 1991); and
  3. c) includes the airspace above, and the water space (but not the water) above, the areas described in paragraphs (a) and (b); and
  4. d) includes the subsoil, bedrock, and other matter under the areas described in paragraphs (a) and (b)

Contaminant * includes any substance (including gases, odorous compounds, liquids, solids and micro-organisms) or energy (excluding noise) or heat, that either by itself or in combination with the same, similar, or other substances, energy, or heat –

  1. a) when discharged into water, changes or is likely to change the physical, chemical, or biological condition of water; or
  2. b) when discharged onto or into land or into air, changes or is likely to change the physical, chemical, or biological condition of the land or air onto or into which it is discharged.

Contaminated land * meansland that has a hazardous substance in or on it that –

  1. a) has significant adverse effects on the environment; or
  2. b) is reasonably likely to have significant adverse effects on the environment.

Cultural impact assessments – reports documenting Māori cultural values, interests and associations with an area or a resource and the potential impacts of a proposed activity on these. They are tools to facilitate meaningful and effective participation of Māori in impact assessment and should be regarded as technical advice, much like any other technical report such as ecological or hydrological assessments.

Cultural value assessments – variations of cultural impact assessments. These can be used in assessing or providing background information when preparing plans. They can identify and describe values pertaining to an area or resource. They differ from cultural impact assessments in that they may not include a description of effects as they do not relate to a specific activity. However, they may address broad level impacts of development occurring or anticipated in that area. Cultural value assessments can provide direction as to the relevant issues and how these should best be addressed.

Domestic or municipal supply – means a reticulated supply publicly or privately owned where the net take is:

  1. a) for the primary purpose of human drinking, sanitation and household needs wherever they arise; or
  2. b) for the purpose of enabling local authorities to meet their general responsibilities (wherever they arise) under the Local Government Act 2002, the Health Act 1956 and relevant legislation, including supply for the purposes of industrial and agricultural use.

Ecological sequence – a series of two or more connected ecosystems or vegetation types that retain natural transition zones along an environmental gradient. Ecological sequences that are not common in the Waikato region include, but are not restricted to:

  1. a) native dune vegetation through to coastal scrub or forest;
  2. b) lake margins or geothermal systems to native forest; and
  3. c) coastal to alpine vegetation.

Such sequences should be largely intact (e.g. perhaps bisected by roads but not by large tracts of non-native land cover), such that they can be traversed by the majority of indigenous species that are reliant on such sequences for the completion of part or all of their life-cycles (either by deliberate movement or dispersal of propagules such as seed or pollen). An exceptional representative sequence will be one of the best examples of its type, taking into account its intactness, composition and ecological processes.

Ecological sustainability – a site’s ability to continue to exist as an area of indigenous vegetation or habitat for indigenous fauna when taking into account its size, shape, buffering from external effects, connection to other natural areas and likely threats. It may change naturally into a different habitat but will continue to contain mainly indigenous species and remain of natural character.

Ecosystem services – the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include:

  1. a) provisioning services (such as food and water);
  2. b) regulating services (such as flood and disease control);
  3. c) cultural services (such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits); and
  4. d) supporting services (such as nutrient cycling);

that maintain the conditions for life on Earth.

Electricity generation activities - means the construction, operation and maintenance of structures associated with electricity generation. This includes small and community-scale distributed generation activities and the system of electricity conveyance required to convey electricity to the distribution network and/or the national grid and electricity storage technologies associated with renewable electricity.

Electricity transmission network/ electricity transmission - all mean part of the national grid (assets used or owned by Transpower NZ Limited) of transmission lines and cables (aerial, underground and undersea, including the high-voltage direct current link), stations and sub-stations and other works used to connect grid injection points and grid exit points to convey electricity throughout the North and South Islands of New Zealand.

Endemicindigenous species occurring naturally in the Waikato region and nowhere else.

Fine particulate matter – particulate matter with an effective aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns and below (PM10).

Fresh water * means all water except coastal water and geothermal water.

Fresh water bodyfresh water (including in the coastal marine area) in a river, lake, stream, pond, wetland or aquifer or any part thereof. It excludes geothermal water.

Full range of ecosystem types – the nine broad ecosystem types that occur in the Waikato region:

  1. a) native forest and scrub;
  2. b) swamps and bogs;
  3. c) streams, rivers and lakes;
  4. d) beaches and dunes;
  5. e) marine and estuarine ecosystems;
  6. f) coastal islands;
  7. g) geothermal ecosystems;
  8. h) karst ecosystems; and
  9. i) high mountain lands.

Future Proof area – land within the boundaries of Waikato District, Waipa District and Hamilton City as at 31 October 2010 (shown on Map 6.2).

Geothermal characteristics – the attributes or values that are included in the make-up of any part of the Regional Geothermal Resource.A geothermal system has a particular set of characteristics, a geothermal feature has another set of characteristics, and the characteristics of the Regional Geothermal Resource include these plus another set of attributes specific to the wider resource.

Geothermal energy * means energy derived or derivable from and produced within the earth by natural heat phenomena, and includes all geothermal water.

Geothermal feature – a surface manifestation of geothermal processes or discharges. It includes steam-fed features, geothermal water-fed features and remnant features such as hydrothermal eruption craters and ancient sinters.

Geothermal system – an individual body of geothermal energy and water, not believed to be hydrologically connected to any other body. Such a system includes material containing heat or energy surrounding any geothermal water, and all plants, animals and other characteristics dependent on the body of geothermal energy and water.

Geothermal water * means water heated within the earth by natural phenomena to a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius or more; and includes all steam, water, and water vapour, and every mixture of all or any of them that has been heated by natural phenomena.

Greenfield – an undeveloped or agricultural tract of land that is a potential site for industrial or urban development.

Hapū collections of whānau groups living together in close location to one another and who extend from a common ancestor.

Hazardous substance * includes, but is not limited to, any substance defined in section 2 of the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 as a hazardous substance.

Heritage order * means a provision made in a district plan to give effect to a requirement made by a heritage protection authority under section 189 or section 189A of the Resource Management Act.

Heritage protection authority * means –

  1. a) any minister of the Crown including:
    1. i) the Minister of Conservation acting either on his or her own motion or on the recommendation of the New Zealand Conservation Authority, a local conservation board, the New Zealand Fish and Game Council, or a Fish and Game Council; and
    2. ii) the Minister of Māori Development acting either on his or her own motion or on the recommendation of an iwi authority;
  2. b) a local authority acting either on its own motion or on the recommendation of an iwi authority;
  3. c) Heritage New Zealand in so far as it exercises its functions under the Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga Act 2014; or
  4. d) a body corporate that is approved as a heritage protection authority under section 188 of the Resource Management Act.

High class soils – those soils in Land Use Capability Classes I and II (excluding peat soils) and soils in Land Use Capability Class IIIe1 and IIIe5, classified as Allophanic Soils, using the New Zealand Soil Classification.

High risk flood zones – land that is subject to river or surface flooding during an event with an annual exceedance probability of no more than one per cent, and during such an event:

  1. i) the depth of flood waters exceeds one metre;
  2. ii) the speed of flood waters exceeds two metres / second; or
  3. iii) the flood depth multiplied by the flood speed exceeds one.

Historic and cultural heritage

  1. a) those natural and physical resources that contribute to an understanding and appreciation of New Zealand's history and cultures, deriving from any of the following qualities:
    1. i) archaeological;
    2. ii) architectural;
    3. iii) cultural;
    4. iv) historic;
    5. v) scientific;
    6. vi) technological; and
  2. b) includes:
    1. i) historic sites, structures, places, and areas;
    2. ii) archaeological sites;
    3. iii) sites of significance to Māori, including wāhi tapu; and
    4. iv) surroundings associated with the natural and physical resources.

Indigenous – in relation to species, native to or occurring naturally in New Zealand as opposed to introduced by humans.

Infrastructure * means –

  1. a) pipelines that distribute or transmit natural or manufactured gas, petroleum, biofuel or geothermal energy;
  2. b) a network for the purpose of telecommunication as defined in section 5 of the Telecommunications Act 2001;
  3. c) a network for the purpose of radiocommunication as defined in section 2(1) of the Radiocommunications Act 1989;
  4. d) facilities for the generation of electricity, lines used or intended to be used to convey electricity, and support structures for lines used or intended to be used to convey electricity, excluding facilities, lines, and support structures if a person–
    1. i) uses them in connection with the generation of electricity for the person’s use; and
    2. ii) does not use them to generate any electricity for supply to any other person;
  5. e) a water supply distribution system, including a system for irrigation;
  6. f) a drainage or sewerage system;
  7. g) structures for transport on land by cycleways, rail, roads, walkways, or any other means;
  8. h) facilities for the loading or unloading of cargo or passengers transported on land by any means;
  9. i) an airport as defined in section 2 of the Airport Authorities Act 1966;
  10. j) a navigation installation as defined in section 2 of the Civil Aviation Act 1990;
  11. k) facilities for the loading or unloading of cargo or passengers carried by sea, including a port-related commercial undertaking as defined in section 2(1) of the Port Companies Act 1988; or
  12. l) anything described as a network utility operation in regulations made for the purposes of the definition of network utility operator in section 166 of the Resource Management Act.

Integrated Transport Assessment – a comprehensive review of all the potential transport impacts of a development proposal.

Intrinsic value – the value something has in itself or for its own sake (rather than its use value, for example).

Iwi a large number of whānau groups or collections of hapū who have common ancestry.  

Iwi authority * means the authority which represents an iwi and which is recognised by that iwi as having authority to do so.

Kaitiaki those that safeguard taonga. They are usually people, but have also been known to be spiritual forces. It is not a role of ownership, but one of custodianship.  


Kaitiakitanga   is exemplified through the practices used by kaitiaki in safeguarding, protecting and caring for resources.

Kōhanga a nursery and is commonly used for preschool facilities.  

Kura   a school.  

Large Geothermal System  – a geothermal system that generally covers a large area and contains large volumes of heated rock and geothermal fluid of temperatures above 100°C. Large Geothermal Systems include those shown on Map 9-1.

Lifeline utilities – entities named or described in Part A, or that carries on a business described in Part B of Schedule 1 of the Civil Defence and Emergency Management Act 2002 and their associated essential infrastructure and services.

Local authority * means a regional council or territorial authority.

Mahinga kai the process of cultivating food.


Mana the authority or importance bestowed on and/or inherited by a person or people to act, direct, give counsel or make decisions among other things.  


Mana whenua the priority given to people to make decisions about the use of resources over an area of land that they are responsible for.


Marae – an area of land (not exclusive to M āori land) that may include independently, or collectively as a complex, a meeting house, dining hall, educational and other associated facilities and structures , as well as residential accommodation associated with the marae.


Mātauranga Māori traditional Māori knowledge - the body of knowledge originating from Māori ancestors, including the Māori world view and perspectives, Māori creativity and cultural practices .


Mauri the life principle instilled in objects by Atua. Mauri is also the life principle that gives being and form to all things in the universe.


Mineral * means a naturally occurring inorganic substance beneath or at the surface of the earth, whether or not under water; and includes all metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals, fuel minerals, precious stones, industrial rocks and building stones, and a prescribed substance within the meaning of the Atomic Energy Act 1945.

Minimum flow – the minimum flow required in a water body to provide for the values of that water body.  

Natural and physical resources * includes land, water, air, soil, minerals and energy, all forms of plants and animals (whether native to New Zealand or introduced), and all structures.

Natural character – in relation to the coastal environment, wetlands, and lakes and rivers and their margins, the degree of naturalness of an area, as evidenced by the degree to which it possesses qualities and features that are products of nature as opposed to products of human activities.

Natural hazard * means any atmospheric or earth or water related occurrence (including earthquake, tsunami, erosion, volcanic and geothermal activity, landslip, subsidence, sedimentation, wind, drought, fire, or flooding), the action of which adversely affects or may adversely affect human life, property, or other aspects of the environment.

Natural hazard risk –the probability or likelihood of specified negative consequence to life, well-being, property, economic activity, environmental or other specified values, due to a particular hazard or group of hazards. Three levels of risk are identified in the Regional Policy Statement:

  1. a) intolerable: risk which cannot be justified and risk reduction is essential e.g. residential housing being developed in a primary hazard zone;
  2. b) tolerable: risk within a range that a community can live with so as to secure certain net benefits. It is a range of risk that is not regarded as negligible or as something to ignore, but rather as something to be kept under review and reduced if possible; and
  3. c) acceptable: risk which is minor, and the cost of further reducing risk is largely disproportionate to the benefits gained e.g. residential housing being developed beyond coastal setbacks.

Naturally rare –(originally rare) rare before the arrival of humans in New Zealand.

Network utility operator * means a person who:

  1. a) undertakes or proposes to undertake the distribution or transmission by pipeline of natural or manufactured gas, petroleum, biofuel or geothermal energy; or
  2. b) operates or proposes to operate a network for the purpose of:
    1. i) telecommunication as defined in section 5 of the Telecommunications Act 2001; or
    2. ii) radiocommunication as defined in section 2(1) of the Radiocommunications Act 1989; or
  3. c) is an electricity operator or electricity distributor as defined in section 2 of the Electricity Act 1992 for the purpose of line function services as defined in that section; or
  4. d) undertakes or proposes to undertake the distribution of water for supply (including irrigation); or
  5. e) undertakes or proposes to undertake a drainage or sewerage system; or
  6. f) constructs, operates, or proposes to construct or operate, a road or railway line; or
  7. g) is an airport authority as defined by the Airport Authorities Act 1966 for the purposes of operating an airport as defined by that Act; or
  8. h) is a provider of any approach control service within the meaning of the Civil Aviation Act 1990; or
  9. i) undertakes or proposes to undertake a project or work prescribed as a network utility operation for the purposes of this definition by regulations made under the Resource Management Act;

and the words network utility operation have a corresponding meaning.

No net loss Means no reasonably measurable overall reduction in the type, extent, long-term viability and functioning of indigenous biodiversity. When the term is applied in a policy context it has regard to the overall contribution of regulatory and non-regulatory methods as contained in local indigenous biodiversity strategies. It does not create a no adverse effects regime.

Non-point source discharge – discharges not having a single point of origin or not introduced into the receiving environment from a specific outlet or facility.  

Overwhelming – instances where the magnitude of a natural hazard event exceeds the design of the structural defence.

Papakāinga the idea of a homestead, an area or local vicinity that holds close kinship ties. Often used to describe housing in association with a marae or pa, or otherwise on Māori land.


Papatūānuku Earth Mother and wife of Ranginui.


Pātaka kai traditional food storehouse.

Peat soils – those soils defined as Organic Soils in the New Zealand Classification System.

Point source discharge – discharges from a stationary or fixed facility.

Primary production - means the commercial production of raw material and basic foods, and which relies on the productive capacity of soil or water resources of the region. This includes the cultivation of land, animal husbandry/farming, horticulture, aquaculture, fishing, forestry, or viticulture. It does not include hobby farms, rural residential blocks, or land used for mineral extraction.

Primary hazard zone – an area in which the risk to life, property or the environment from natural hazards is intolerable.

Protected customary right – an activity, use, or practice:

  1. a) established by an applicant group in accordance with subpart 2 of Part 3 of the Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Act 2011; and
  2. b) recognised by -
    1. i) a protected customary rights order as identified in subpart 2 of Part 4 of the Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Act 2011; or
    2. ii) an agreement made under section 95 of the Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Act 2011

Rāhui  a tool used by kaitiaki to manage natural resources and are declared by kaitiaki to restrict access to and use of natural resources. Rāhui is a form of temporary restriction relating to the condition of a resource and the nature of the tapu in or around a specific area. Rāhui resemble prohibitions.  


Ranginui Sky Father and husband of Papatūānuku.  


Raupatu the confiscation of land and includes the related invasion, hostilities, war, loss of life, destruction of taonga and property, and consequent suffering, distress, and deprivation.  

Reasonable mixing – the spatial zone or temporal period, outside of which a contaminant is expected to have no more than minor effects on the air, land or water into which it is discharged.

Regional Geothermal Resource –includes all geothermal energy (including geothermal water), material containing heat or energy (derived from within the earth) surrounding any geothermal water, and all plants, animals, micro-organisms and characteristics dependent on the geothermal energy located in the region.

Regionally significant industry - means an economic activity based on the use of natural and physical resources in the region and is identified in regional or district plans, which has been shown to have benefits that are significant at a regional or national scale. These may include social, economic or cultural benefits.

Regionally significant infrastructure –includes:

  1. a) pipelines for the distribution or transmission of natural or manufactured gas or petroleum;
  2. b) infrastructure required to permit telecommunication as defined in the Telecommunications Act 2001;
  3. c) radio apparatus as defined in section 2(1) of the Radio Communications Act 1989;
  4. d) the national electricity grid, as defined by the Electricity Industry Act 2010;
  5. e) a network (as defined in the Electricity Industry Act 2010);
  6. f) infrastructure for the generation and/ or conveyanceof electricity that is fed into the national grid or a network (as defined in the Electricity Industry Act 2010);
  7. g) significant transport corridors as defined in Map 6.1 and 6.1A;
  8. h) lifeline utilities, as defined in the Civil Defence and Emergency Management Act 2002, and their associated essential infrastructure and services;
  9. i) municipal wastewater treatment plants, water supply treatment plants and bulk water supply, wastewater conveyance and storage systems, municipal supply dams (including Mangatangi and Mangatawhiri water supply dams) and ancillary infrastructure;
  10. j) flood and drainage infrastructure managed by Waikato Regional Council;
  11. k) Hamilton City bus terminal and Hamilton Railway Station terminus; and
  12. l) Hamilton International Airport.

Renewable electricity generation - means generation of electricity from solar, wind, hydro-electricity, geothermal, biomass, tidal, wave, or ocean current energy sources.

Residual risk – the risk associated with existing natural hazard structural defences such as stopbanks and seawalls, including the risk of failure of a defence or of a greater than design event occurring.

Residual risk zone – an area subject to residual risk – that is the area that would be at risk from a natural hazard event but for a structural defence.

Reverse sensitivity – is the vulnerability of a lawfully established activity to a new activity or land use. It arises when a lawfully established activity causes potential, actual or perceived adverse environmental effects on the new activity, to a point where the new activity may seek to restrict the operation or require mitigation of the effects of the established activity. 

Riparian areas – the strip of land adjacent to a water body and which contributes, or may contribute, to the maintenance and enhancement of the natural functioning, quality and character of the water body.

Rohe the geographical area closely linked to iwi or hapū. That iwi or hapū will exercise mana over that area and so has mana whenua over it.  

Rural-residential development – residential development in rural areas which is predominantly for residential activity and is not ancillary to a rural or agricultural use.

Sensitive activities – activities that are affected by the adverse effects typically associated with some lawful activities, for example, dust, spray or noise from a quarry/port facility or rural production activity, noise in an entertainment precinct or smells from a sewage treatment facility.

Significant Geothermal Features Significant Geothermal Features in Development and Limited Development Systems are those geothermal features that are considered significant and are listed and mapped in the Waikato Regional Plan. In Protected, Research and Small Geothermal Systems, Significant Geothermal Features are those geothermal features that meet the description of one or more of the identified Significant Geothermal Feature Types listed in Table 9-1 (in Section 9B).

Significant indigenous vegetation and significant habitat of indigenous fauna – any area that meets one or more of the criteria in Section 11A.   

Significant mineral resources means mineral resources identified in accordance with Method 6.8.1.

Small Geothermal System – a geothermal system that:

  1. a) is not understood to be connected to a Large Geothermal System identified in the Waikato Regional Plan; and
  2. b) either:
    1. i) does not produce water with a temperature equal to or greater than 100°C or
    2. ii) does not occupy a volume of greater than 10 km3.

Soil quality – the life-supporting capacity of soil, including its biological, chemical and physical properties.

Solid fuel home heating appliance –a domestic heating appliance that burns solid fuel, including an appliance for interior space heating in buildings. This includes wood burners, pellet burners, domestic ranges and stoves, water heaters or central heating units, multi fuel (coal/wood and waste burning systems) and similar appliances, but excludes small scale domestic devices for smoking food.

Stock –includesall cattle (including dairy and beef cattle), other heavy bovines and deer, sheep and goats.

Structure * means any building, equipment, device, or other facility made by people and which is fixed to land; and includes any raft.

Surf break – a natural feature that is comprised of swell, currents, water levels, seabed morphology, and wind. The hydrodynamic character of the ocean (swell, currents and water levels) combines with seabed morphology and winds to give rise to a "surfable wave". A surf break includes the "swell corridor" through which the swell travels, and the morphology of the seabed of that wave corridor, through to the point where waves created by the swell dissipate and become non-surfable. Surf breaks of national significance include the Whangamata Bar, Manu Bay, Whale Bay and Indicators at Raglan.

Sustainable yield – the amount of fresh water take from an aquifer that can be maintained indefinitely without causing adverse effects on the values in that aquifer.

Taiao the name given to identify the environment and nature.  

Tāngata whenua * – in relation to a particular area, means the iwi, or hapū, that hold mana whenua over that area.

Taonga treasures, or valuable items. Taonga is a broad concept and includes physical and metaphysical assets such as te reo and intellectual property and the traditional knowledge and use of these, social organisations and the arts.

Tapu the sacred, dedicated, protected or that which is not ordinary or everyday. Tapu is the state or condition of a person or objects placed under the patronage of Atua. It is directly related to the mauri of a person, area or object and recognises an appreciation and respect of another life force.  


Taxa –named biological classification units assigned to individuals or sets of species (e.g. species, subspecies, genus, order, variety).


Territorial authority – a city council or a district council named in Part 2 (external link)of Schedule 2 of the Local Government Act 2002.


Tikanga lore, custom, practice or commonsense thoughts that are based on the Māori belief system. The application of Tikanga is diverse and can vary, depending upon when and where an event takes place. Tikanga provides a framework for rules that govern harvesting, the care and respect for customary resources and for the environment.

Tūpuna ancestors.  

Urban – a concentration of residential, commercial and/or industrial activities, having the nature of a city, town, suburb or a village which is predominantly non-agricultural or non-rural in nature.

Urupā burial ground or cemetery.  

Wāhi tapu  a sacred site. These are defined locally by the hapū and iwi who are the kaitiaki for the wāhi tapu. These typically include burial grounds and sites of historical importance to the tribe. In order to protect particular sites from interference and desecration, some tribes will refuse to disclose the exact location to outsiders. When tapu is applied to places of significance to iwi, hapū and/or whānau, they are deemed wāhi tapu. The literal translation is “sacred place”. Places can become wāhi tapu for many reasons. In some instances, they signify ahi kā; in other instances, they can be burial grounds, places used for ritual cleansing or healing, or simply where past incidents occurred. Some wāhi tapu are places or landscapes considered tapu because of their magnitude, or symbolic representation of a hapū or iwi.

Wānanga forums for passing on traditional knowledge. It is often used to refer to modern tertiary institutions.  

Water body * means fresh water or geothermal water in a river, lake, stream, pond, wetland or aquifer, or any part thereof, that is not located within the coastal marine area.

Water management plan – is the short title for a Water Conservation, Demand Management and Drought Management Plan. It isa plan that establishes a long-term strategy for the water requirements of domestic or municipal suppliers and their communities. It also demonstrates that the volume of water required, including any increase over that previously authorised, has been justified and that the water take will be used efficiently and effectively.  

Wetland – permanently or intermittently wet areas, shallow water, and land/water margins that support a natural ecosystem of plants and animals that are adapted to wet conditions, including within the coastal marine area.


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