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  Services » Publications » Technical reports - by year » tr200715

Hamilton, Taupo, Te Kuiti and Tokoroa: an Assessment of Management Options to Achieve National Environmental Standards

Report: TR 2007/15
Author: Emily Wilton (Environet Ltd.)


Concentrations of PM10 exceed National Environmental Standards (NES) for PM10 in a number of urban areas of the Waikato. The NES is set at 50 µg m-3 (24-hour average) with one allowable exceedence per year. The Regional Air Plan sets a more stringent target for PM10 of 33 µg m-3 (24-hour average).

The main areas of concern are Taupo, Te Kuiti, Hamilton and Tokoroa. The maximum measured 24 hour PM10 concentrations in these areas are 89 µg m-3 (Taupo - 2006), 69 µg m-3 (Te Kuiti - 2006), 68 µg m-3 (Hamilton - 2006) and 75 µg m-3 (Tokoroa - 2001). Highest PM10 concentrations in all areas are measured during the winter months. Reductions in PM10 concentrations required to meet the NES are: 44% for Taupo, 33% for Tokoroa, 28 for Te Kuiti, 27% for Hamilton.

The main source of PM10 emissions in these areas is from solid fuel burning for domestic home heating. In Taupo domestic heating contributes around 88% of the daily winter PM10 with 9% from motor vehicles, 3% from outdoor burning and less than 1% from industry. Similar contributions are observed for Tokoroa with 89% domestic, 5% outdoor burning, 5% motor vehicles and 1% industry. In Te Kuiti solid fuel burning is estimated to contribute around 89% of the PM10, with motor vehicles contributing 6% and industry 5%. In Hamilton the contribution from domestic heating is 72%, with motor vehicles contributing 11%, outdoor burning 13% and industry 4%. The inventories do not account for the potential contribution of natural sources such as dusts or industrial emissions from processes such as sanding.

The impact of management options to reduce PM10 concentrations in Taupo, Te Kuiti, Hamilton and Tokoroa are examined in this report. Results suggest that the NES is unlikely to be met in any area without additional measures. A combination of incentives and regulations is likely to be required in all locations.

Hamilton, Taupo, Te Kuiti and Tokoroa : an Assessment of Management Options to Achieve National Environmental Standards
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Table of contents

  Abstract i
1 Introduction 1
2 Sources of PM10 1
2.1 Taupo Emission Inventory – 2004 1
2.2 Tokoroa Emission Inventory – 2005 2
2.3 Hamilton Emission Inventory - 2005 2
2.4 Te Kuiti Emissions Assessment 3
3 Managing air quality to meet the NES 3
3.1 Tokoroa 4
3.1.1 Assumptions 4
3.1.2 Projections 6
3.1.3 Summary 11
3.2 Hamilton 11
3.2.1 Assumptions 11
3.2.2 Projections 13
3.2.3 Summary 17
3.3 Taupo 17
3.3.1 Assumptions 17
3.3.2 Projections 19
3.3.3 Summary 23
3.4 Te Kuiti 23
3.4.1 Assumptions 23
3.4.2 Projections 25
3.4.3 Summary 28
4 Conclusions 28
  References 29
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