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  Services » Publications » Technical reports - by year » TR200118

Saltwater Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) – a Weed Review

Report: TR 2001/18
Author:  Meg Graeme and Hamish Kendal (Natural Solutions) 


Paspalum vaginatum is a saline-tolerant perennial grass which occurs in many estuaries and along coastal foreshores of the northern half of the North Island, New Zealand (Edgar and Conner 2000, Galloway 2000a, Rogan 2000, Waikato University herbarium). The distribution and ecology of this grass, and the impacts it has on the natural values of these areas is not well documented.

This report was commissioned by the Waikato Regional Council (Environment Waikato) in light of anecdotal evidence which suggests that P. vaginatum is threatening natural estuarine values in the Waikato region (Graeme 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999; Kendal 2000). These impacts appear similar to those of the more well-documented cord grass (Spartina spp.).

The brief for this project is to:

• Undertake a survey of literature and expert opinion regarding Paspalum vaginatum, particularly as it relates to the New Zealand context.

• Detail the survey results and make recommendations for possible future action.

• Note any other introduced grass species that are potentially threatening the estuarine values of the Waikato region.

Saltwater Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) – a Weed Review
(769 kb, 109 seconds to download, 56k modem)

Table of contents

  Ackowledgements i
1 Introduction 1
2 Methods 2
3 Results 3
3.1 Taxonomy 3
3.2 Morphology and biology 3
3.3 Distribution 5
3.3.1 International 5
3.3.2 New Zealand 5
3.4 Ecology 6
3.4.1 International 6
3.4.2 New Zealand 6
3.5 Impacts 8
3.5.1 International 8
3.5.2 New Zealand 8
3.6 Control measures 16
3.7 Resource values 17
3.7.1 Sports turf 17
3.7.2 Other uses and values 18
3.7.3 Inanga 18
3.8 Other potential weed species 19
3.8.1 Grasses 19
3.8.2 Non-grasses 20
4 Discussion and recommendations 22
4.1 Research directions 22
4.2 Management options 23
  Bibliography 25
  Appendix 1: Letter to experts 30
  Appendix 2: Herbarium collection notes 33
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