Report: TR 2010/13
Author: Emily Wilton, Melanie Baynes, Environet Ltd
The purpose of this emission inventory is to determine the sources of emissions to air from Taupo, Thames and Huntly to assist in the management of the air resource. The sources that are included in the emission inventory are domestic heating, motor vehicle, industrial and commercial activities and outdoor burning. Natural source contributions (for example; sea salt and soil) are not included because the methodology to estimate emissions is less robust.
The contaminants included in the emission inventory are: suspended particles (PM10) carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, benzene and benzo(a)pyrene. The report focuses on PM10 as air quality monitoring throughout New Zealand suggests that PM10 is the only contaminant that breaches national environmental standards for air quality.
In Taupo, Thames and Huntly, a domestic home heating survey was undertaken to determine the proportions of households using different heating methods and fuels. The results show that in Taupo, wood burners are the most common method of heating the main living area with 45% of households using them. This was closely followed by 44% of households using electricity as the main form of heating. In Thames electricity is the most common type of home heating method in the main living area, with 53% of households using this method. The second most common method of home heating is wood burners with 44% of householders using them to heat their main living area. In Huntly, 46% of households used electricity and 32% of householders used wood burners. In all areas many householders use more than one method to heat the main living area of their home.
Domestic heating is the main source of PM10 emissions in Taupo, accounting for 91% of all emissions. Other sources included transport (7%) and outdoor burning (2%). The industrial contribution to PM10 emissions in urban Taupo was negligible. On an average winter’s night, around 747 kilograms of PM10 are discharged from these sources. The main source of PM10 emissions for Thames was domestic home heating, which accounted for 88% of total emissions. Outdoor burning contributed six percent, industry contributed four percent and transport contributed two percent to total emissions. Around 326 kilograms of PM10 are discharged on an average winter’s night from these sources in Thames. Domestic heating was also the main source of PM10 emissions from within the Huntly airshed, accounting for 91% of total emissions. Other sources in Huntly included outdoor burning (6%) motor vehicles (2%) and industry (1%). On an average winter’s night, around 512 kilograms of PM10 are discharged from these sources.
Air Emission Inventory – Taupo, Thames and Huntly 2009
(1430 kb, 204 seconds to download, 56k modem)
|2.1||Selection of sources||2|
|2.2||Selection of contaminants||2|
|2.3||Selection of areas||3|
|3.2||Home heating methods||10|
|3.3||Emissions from domestic heating||16|
|4.1||Motor vehicle emissions||37|
|5||Industrial and Commercial||39|
|5.2||Industrial and commercial emissions||40|
|5.3.1||Urban part of the airshed||40|
|5.3.2||Industrial part of the airshed||40|
|7||Other sources of emissions||45|
|8.1.1||Taupo urban area||46|
|Appendix A:||Home Heating Questionnaire||61|
|Appendix B:||Emission factors for domestic heating||66|
|Appendix C:||Estimate of the spatial distribution of PM10 emissions
from all sources in the urban Taupo airshed.