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  Environment » Environmental Information » Environmental indicators » Air: monitoring and reporting » Lead levels in air » Methods - how we monitor

Methods - how we monitor

Monitoring sites

Monitoring sites for this specific indicator are marked in blue below:

(Map source: LAWA(external link))

Lead was monitored in Hamilton at Waikato Regional Council's Whitiora Road monitoring site from August 1983 to August 2001.

Monitoring frequency

Lead concentrations were measured continuously on a seven-day average measurement. Data were reported as a three-month moving averages.

Monitoring history

Lead monitoring started at Waikato Regional Council's Whitiora Road monitoring site in August 1983 and finished in August 2001. Some periods of missing data did occur. The largest of these were:

  • July 2 to October 31, 1984
  • November 2, 1993 to June 30, 1994
  • May 2 to June 30, 1995
  • June 2 to September 30, 1999
  • March 2 to June 30, 2000.

Measurement technique

Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations were measured using high volume gravimetric (continuous) sampling over a seven-day period. The lead content of the particulate was then measured, and averaged monthly, by the WaterCare Services Laboratory in Auckland.

How this indicator is compiled

Monitoring results are reported in relation to the Waikato Regional Plan, using the Ministry for the Environment (2002) guideline of 0.2 µg/m3 for lead.


Lead monitoring was carried out in Hamilton only. However, the removal of lead from petrol indicates that reductions in lead are likely in all areas of the Waikato Region.

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