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[NB: Definitions marked with an * are taken from the RMA 1991 or Resource Management Amendment Act 1993.

Terms marked # differ to definitions in the National Environmental Standard for Plantation Forestry Regulations 2017 (NESPF). Users should refer to the NESPF for the definition of these terms in relation to plantation forestry activities]

Air Quality Characteristics: Include:

  1. the health status of the air (i.e. the ability to sustain all life)
  2. the presence/level/lack of objectionable odorous contaminants
  3. the presence/level/lack of objectionable particulate contaminants
  4. natural/unhindered views and visibility
  5. matters of importance to Maaori.

(Environment Waikato, 1997).

AMA: aquaculture management area.

Amenity Values*: Those natural or physical qualities and characteristics of an area that contribute to people's appreciation of its pleasantness, aesthetic coherence, and cultural and recreational attributes.

Anchoring: means the securing of a vessel to the bed of the waterway by means of an anchor, cable or other device that is removed with the vessel when it leaves the site of anchorage.

Aquaculture: The farming of aquatic fish, shellfish, and plants (New Zealand Fishing Industry Board, 1994).

Aquaculture Management Area*:
(a) means a coastal marine area described as an aquaculture management area and included in a regional coastal plan or proposed regional coastal plan in accordance with section 165C; and
(b) includes—
(i) an interim aquaculture management area that becomes an aquaculture management area under section 44 of the Aquaculture Reform (Repeals and Transitional Provisions) Act 2004; and
(ii) part of an aquaculture management area.

ASCV: Area of Significant Conservation Value.

Authorised marine farm: means, for the purpose of Rule 16.5.5B, a marine farm that was lawfully established by lease or licence under the Marine Farming Act 1971, or a current marine farming permit under the Fisheries Act 1983, or a coastal permit under the Resource Management Act 1991 issued under Rules 16.5.3, 16.5.4 or 16.5.5 of this Plan.

Beach System: A term used to describe the entire, inter-connected, dynamic system which composes a particular beach. The term incorporates all those parts of a beach between which sediment is regularly exchanged. As such, it includes the offshore sub-tidal regions of beaches (where sand is transported during storms) and the frontal dune behind the beach (which provides a reservoir of sand for the beach, drawn on during major storms).

Bed*: In relation to the sea, the submarine areas covered by the internal waters and the territorial sea.

Berm: A landward ridge or bar; a flat topped feature which forms at the limit of the wave’s wash (J Pethick, Introduction to Coastal Geomorphology, 1984).

Best Practicable Option*: In relation to a discharge of a contaminant or an emission of noise, means the best method for preventing or minimising the adverse effects on the environment having regard, among other things, to:

  1. the nature of the discharge or emission and the sensitivity of the receiving environment to adverse effects; and
  2. the financial implications, and the effects on the environment, of that option when compared with other options; and
  3. the current state of technical knowledge and the likelihood that the option can be successfully applied.

Bioaccumulative: The intrinsic tendency for substances to accumulate in living organisms as they breathe contaminated air, drink or live incontaminated water or eat contaminated food.

Blue Mud: Anaerobic mud (unoxidized), typically blue/grey in colour (Environment Waikato, 1993).

Charter Vessel means a vessel available for hire for temporary recreational use.


  1. For the purposes of this Plan, cleanfill consists of the following materials:
    1. uncontaminated soil and/or sand
    2. uncontaminated clay
    3. uncontaminated gravel or rock
    4. uncontaminated brick and rubble
    5. general demolition material that is not contaminated by substances subject to biological, chemical, and/or physical breakdown.
  2. For the purposes of this Plan, the following materials are not permitted in a cleanfill:
    1. asphalt, asphalt concrete and tarseal
    2. sawdust and/or bark
    3. combustible matter
    4. organic matter including timber, trees, and/or garden trimmings
    5. sludges
    6. contaminated soil
    7. domestic, industrial or commercial waste
    8. hazardous waste
    9. medical or clinical waste.
  3. The deposit shall not contain any hazardous substances.

Coastal Environment: The coastal environment is an environment in which the coast is a significant part or element, and includes the CMA.

CMA: Coastal Marine Area.

Coastal Marine Area*: The foreshore, seabed, and coastal water, and air space above the water -

  1. of which the seaward boundary is the outer limits of the territorial sea:
  2. of which the landward boundary is the line of mean high water springs, except that where that line crosses a river, the landward boundary at that point shall be whichever is the lesser of -
    1. one kilometre upstream from the mouth of the river; or
    2. the point upstream that is calculated by multiplying the width of the river mouth by 5.

Coastal Permit*: A consent to do something in CMA that otherwise would contravene any of sections 12, 14, and 15 of the RMA.

Coastal Water*: Seawater within the outer limits of the territorial sea and includes -

  1. seawater with a substantial fresh water component; and
  2. seawater in estuaries, fiords, inlets, harbours, or embayments.

Conditions*: In relation to plans and resource consents, includes terms, standards, restrictions, and prohibitions.

Contaminant*: Includes any substance (including gases, liquids, solids, and micro-organisms) or energy (excluding noise) or heat, that either by itself or in combination with the same, similar, or other substances, energy, or heat -

  1. when discharged into water, changes or is likely to change the physical, chemical, or biological condition of water; or
  2. when discharged onto or into land or into air, changes or is likely to change the physical, chemical, or biological condition of the land or air onto or into which it is discharged.

Controlled Activity*: An activity which:

  1. is provided for, as a controlled activity, by a rule in a plan or a proposed plan; and
  2. complies with standards and terms specified in a plan or proposed plan for such activities; and
  3. is assessed according to matters the consent authority has reserved control over in the plan or proposed plan; and
  4. is allowed only if a resource consent is obtained in respect of that activity.

Declamation: Involves the construction of a basin or channel which causes previously exposed land to be covered by salt water.

Discharge*: Includes emit, deposit, and allow to escape.

Discretionary Activity*: An activity:

  1. which is provided for, as a discretionary activity, by a rule in a plan or proposed plan; and
  2. which is allowed only if a resource consent is obtained in respect of that activity; and
  3. which may have standards and terms specified in a plan or proposed plan; and
  4. which in respect of which the consent authority may restrict the exercise of its discretion to those matters specified in a plan or proposed plan for that activity.

DMA: Defined Mooring Area.

Ecosystem: A dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment, interacting as a functional unit (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1992).

Effect*: As defined in s3 of the RMA, unless the context otherwise requires, the term 'effect' includes -:

  1. any positive or adverse effect; and
  2. any temporary or permanent effect; and
  3. any past, present, or future effect; and
  4. any cumulative effect which arises over time or in combination with other effects - regardless of the scale, intensity, duration, or frequency of the effect, and also includes -
  5. any potential effect of high probability; and
  6. any potential effect of low probability which has a high potential impact.

Enhancement: Means allowing use and development of natural and physical resources while ensuring that use or development raises or improves the values, characteristics and qualities of the environment as a whole (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Environment*: Includes -

  1. ecosystems and their constituent parts, including people and communities; and
  2. all natural and physical resources; and
  3. amenity values; and
  4. the social, economic, aesthetic, and cultural conditions which affect the matters stated in paragraphs (a) to (c) of this definition or which are affected by those matters.

Environmental Results Anticipated: Means the intended result or measurable outcome expected on the environment, which occurs as a consequence of implementing a policy or method (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Environmental Standards: Is used to describe the environmental limits which will be used to describe the use, development and protection of natural and physical resources in such a manner as to ensure the existing state of the environment is not further degraded (Environment Waikato, 1992).

Esplanade Reserve*: A reserve within the meaning of the Reserves Act 1977:

  1. which is either -
    1. a local purpose reserve within the meaning of section 23 of that Act, if vested in the territorial authority under section 239; or
    2. a reserve vested in the Crown or a regional council under section 237 D; and
  2. which is vested in the territorial authority, regional council, or the Crown for a purpose or purposes set out in section 229.

Esplanade Strip*: A strip of land created by the registration of an instrument in accordance with section 232 for a purpose or purposes set out in section 229.

Exclusive Occupation: Occupation or use that would exclude or effectively exclude public access from an area (Schedule 1.9 of the NZCPS).

Exotic Plant: A plant which is not native to New Zealand or indigenous to a locality. These may include introduced plants which are species not native to New Zealand, but have been brought in by accident or design (Environment Waikato).

Fed aquaculture: means the farming of any aquatic organism that involves the discharge of feed into the coastal marine area and includes finfish farming.

Financial Contribution*: A contribution of -

  1. Money; or
  2. Land, including an esplanade reserve or esplanade strip (other than in relation to a subdivision consent), but excluding Maori land within the meaning of the Maori Land Act 1993 unless that Act provides otherwise; or
  3. Works, including (but without limitation) the protection, planting, or replanting of any tree or other vegetation or the protection, restoration, or enhancement of any natural or physical resource; or
  4. Services -

or any combination thereof, made for purposes specified in the plan (including the purpose of ensuring positive effects on the environment to offset any adverse effect) and which does not exceed in value the maximum amount specified in, or determined in accordance with, the plan. (Section 108(9) of the RMA)

Firth of Thames: means, for the purpose of Policy 6.1.1B, Policy 6.1.4, Rule 16.5.5B and Rule 16.5.5C, all of the coastal marine area south of a line extending from Deadmans Point to Orere Point.

Fish Aggregation Devices: A raft orfloating structure designed specifically to attract a target fish species or number of species in a particular area (Environment Waikato, 1994).

Foreshore*: Any land covered and uncovered by the flow and ebb of the tide at mean spring tides and, in relation to any such land that forms part of the bed of a river, does not include any area that is not part of the CMA.

Functional Need: The need for an activity to be located in the CMA where it is not able to function above Mean High Water Springs.

Geomorphology: The study of the development, configuration and distribution of the surface features of the earth (Funk and Wagnalls, Standard Dictionary, 1960).

Habitat: The place or type of site where an organism or population normally occurs (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development).

Hapu: Sub-tribe or cluster of whanau groups that share a common ancestor (Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 1992).

Hazard Risk: The level of threat to people or what people value that is associated with the occurrence of a natural hazard. This risk can be escalated or reduced by human activity.

Hazardous Substance: means, unless expressly provided otherwise by regulations, any substance:

  1. With one or more of the following intrinsic properties:
    1. Explosiveness:
    2. Flammability:
    3. A capacity to oxidise:
    4. Corrosiveness:
    5. Toxicity (including chronic toxicity):
    6. Ecotoxicity, with or without bioaccumulation;
  2. Which on contact with air or water (other than air or water where the temperature or pressure has been artificially increased or decreased) generates a substance with any one or more of the properties specified in paragraph a) of this definition. (Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996)

For the purposes of this Plan, ‘hazardous substance’ includes any substances listed in the seventh schedule of the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996.

Implementation Method: Describes an action which outlines how a policy will be implemented, and can include specific procedures, programmes or techniques (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Impoundments: Structures which remove land of the foreshore or seabed from the influence of tides.

Indigenous Vegetation#: Means vegetation that occurs naturally in New Zealand or arrived in New Zealand without human assistance (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Infrastructure#: For the purposes of this Plan includes, buildings, network utilities, impoundments and other such structures located in the CMA.

Initial Mixing: The first phase of the mixing of a discharge with receiving waters. In the case of sewage effluent being discharged to waters of the CMA, initial mixing refers to all mixing processes that occur between the effluent leaving the discharge structure and reaching the surface of the receiving water (Environment Waikato, 1997).

Issue: A statement of concern or a problem as it relates to an aspect of natural and physical resources or the management of those resources within the Region. This includes those matters identified in s62 of the RMA (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Iwi: Means tribe, people: an iwi authority can refer to any group which legitimately represents Maaoritribal interests (Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 1992).

Iwi Authority*: The authority which represents an iwi and which is recognised by that iwi as having authority to do so.

Kai Moana: Food from the sea (Canterbury Regional Council, 1992).

Kaitiakitanga*: The exercise of guardianship; and, in relation to a resource, includes the ethic of stewardship based on the nature of the resource itself.

Karakia: Prayer, chant, ritual.

Kawa: Protocol, local way, kawa varies among tribes.

Land*: Includes land covered by water and the air space above land.

Maataitai*: Food resources from the sea and “mahinga maataitai” means the areas from which these resources are gathered.

Maintenance Dredging: The dredging of the bed of the sea necessary to maintain water depths, for the safe and convenient navigation of ships, in navigation channels and at berthing and mooring facilities, including marina developments. (Schedule 1.6 of the NZCPS).

Manaakitanga: Hospitality, especially shown to visitors.

Mana Whenua*: Customary authority exercised by an iwi or hapu in an identified area.

Marina: a comprehensively designed facility primarily for the accommodation of boats comprising berths, pontoons, piers, boat launching ramp and public jetties, and any associated reclamations, breakwaters and wave protection barriers. It may also include land based areas for carparking and associated facilities and services. (Note: such land based facilities may be above MHWS and not subject to this plan).

Marina Basin the area or footprint in the coastal marine area used for the purpose of berthing boats used primarily for pleasure or recreation.

Marine Farming: means the activities of breeding, hatching, collection, cultivation, rearing, on-growing or harvesting of fin fish, shellfish, aquatic life or marine vegetation (and includes spat catching and spat holding), and includes the placement or erection of structures or other equipment, the disturbance of matter on the foreshore and/or seabed, and the use and occupation of the foreshore, seabed or water in the CMA (it should be noted that the breeding, hatching, collection, cultivation, rearing, on-growing or harvesting of fish and shellfish are controlled by the Ministry of Fisheries).

Marine Protected Area: An area of the marine environment especially dedicated to, or achieving, through adequate protection, the maintenance and/or recovery of biological diversity at the habitat and ecosystem level in a healthy functioning state (Marine Protected Areas Policy and Implementation Plan, 2005).

Mauri: Life force (after Goodall, Palmer and Tau, 1990).

Mean High Water Springs: The place on the shore where spring high tides reach on average over a period of time (often recognised by the upper line of debris on the beach) (Environment Waikato, 1993).

Mooring: means any weight or article placed in or on the foreshore, or the bed of a harbour, navigable lake, navigable river or of the sea for the purpose of securing a vessel, raft, aircraft or floating structure: and includes any wire, rope, buoy or other device attached or connected to such weight or article, but does not include an anchor which is normally removed with a vessel, raft, aircraft or floating structure when it leaves a site or anchorage, and does not include any structures associated with a marina. A mooring can either be a swing mooring which is placed on the sea, river or lake bed and allows the vessel to swing freely around it with the movement of tides and currents, or a pole mooring which is embedded in the sea, river or lake bed and to which the vessel is fixed in place at both bow and stern of the vessel.

Mouth*: For the purpose of defining the landward boundary of the CMA, means the mouth of the river either -

  1. as agreed and set between the Minister of Conservation, the regional council, and the appropriate territorial authority in the period between consultation on and notification of, the proposed Regional Coastal Plan; or
  2. as declared by the Planning Tribunal under s310 (of the RMA) upon application made by the Minister of Conservation, the regional council, or the territorial authority prior to the plan becoming operative.

MHWS: Mean High Water Springs.

National Policy Statement*: A statement issued under s52 (of the RMA).

National Significance: means one or more of the following:

  1. Issues and/or effects that are of concern to substantial parts of the national community.
  2. Values associated with natural and physical resources or any structure, place or feature, which are rare or unique within the Nation, and/or are nationally representative.
  3. Matters or effects which are of greater than local and/or regional significance to tangata whenua. (Refer also to Policies 1.1.3 and 1.1.4 of the NZCPS which provide national priorities for the protection and preservation of the natural character of the coastal environment).

Natural Character: The natural qualities of the coastal environment of New Zealand. Such qualities may include natural elements of ecological, physical, spiritual, cultural or aesthetic value. Both modified and managed environs have a degree of natural character by virtue of the presence of natural elements.

Natural and Physical Resources*: Includes land, water, air, soil, minerals, and energy, all forms of plants and animals (whether native to New Zealand or introduced), and all structures.

Natural Hazard*: Any atmospheric or earth or water related occurrence (including earthquake, tsunami, erosion, volcanic and geothermal activity, landslip, subsidence, sedimentation, wind, drought, fire, or flooding), the action of which adversely affects or may adversely affect human life, property, or other aspects of the environment.

Navigational Aid: Includes any beacons, lights, buoys, ski lane poles and other markers which have the purpose of providing for the safety of people and ships at sea.

New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement*: A statement issued under s57 (of the RMA).

Network Utility Operator*: Means a person who -

  1. undertakes or proposes to undertake the distribution or transmission by pipeline of natural or manufactured gas, petroleum, or geothermal energy; or
  2. operates or proposes to operate a network for the purpose of telecommunication or radiocommunication as defined in s2(1) of the Telecommunications Act 1987; or
  3. is an electricity operator or electricity distributor as defined in section 2 of the Electricity Act 1992 for the purpose of line function services as defined in that section; or
  4. undertakes or proposes to undertake the distribution of water for supply (including irrigation); or
  5. undertakes or proposes to undertake a drainage or sewerage system or
  6. constructs, operates, or proposes to construct or operate, a road or railway line; or
  7. is an airport authority as defined by the Airport Authorities Act 1966 for the purposes of operating an airport as defined by that Act; or
  8. is a provider of any approach control service within the meaning of the Civil Aviation Act 1990; or
  9. undertakes or proposes to undertake a project or work prescribed as a network utility operation for the purposes of this definition by regulations made under this Act, -

and the words “network utility operation” have a corresponding meaning.

Non-complying Activity*: An activity (not being a prohibited activity) which:

  1. contravenes a rule in a plan or proposed plan; and
  2. is allowed only if an resource consent is obtained in respect of that activity.

Non-degradation: The maintenance or enhancement of the status quo. In respect of water resources, this means the protection and maintenance of the existing quality of a water body, including its physical and chemical characterisation and the integrity and health of associated biological communities (Water Quality Standards Handbook, Washington, December 1993).

NZCPS: New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement.

Objective: A statement of a desired outcome or end state (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Obstruction: Hindering or stopping passage through an area, but excluding situations where there is sufficient space within the foreshore to move around the obstruction (Environment Waikato, 1993).

Occupier*: In relation to any land (including any premises and any CMA), includes any agent, employee, or other person acting or apparently acting in the general management or control of the land, or any plant or machinery on that land.

Open Coastal Water*: Coastal water that is remote from estuaries, fiords, inlets, harbours, and embayments

Open Space: Large areas that are free from structures. Such areas may be in their natural state or a modified state (Board of Inquiry Report on the NZCPS).

Permitted Activity*: An activity that is allowed by a plan without a resource consent if it complies in all respects with any conditions (including any conditions in relation to any matter described in s108 or s220 of the RMA) specified in the plan.

Planted production forest: A forest of selected species of trees that are specifically planted, managed and harvested for the production of timber or other wood based products, and includes understorey that has established beneath the canopy and areas that are demonstrated to be failed plantings from the previous rotation.

Plant Pest: Any plant (terrestrial or aquatic) that is harmful and/or troublesome, and is specified as a pest in a pest management strategy prepared under the Biosecurity Act 1993.

Policy: A specific statement of the course of action (or type of intervention) which will be taken in order to achieve a stated objective (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Precautionary Approach: Recognising the relative lack of knowledge about the environment by providing for prohibited, non-complying, or discretionary activities, where:

  1. there is insufficient knowledge to predict the effects of an activity; or
  2. there is reason to believe that the activity will have significant adverse effects; or
  3. it is not practicable to require the applicant to gather sufficient information prior to granting a consent to be able to predict the impact of the effects of the activity (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Preservation: In relation to a resource, means the maintenance, so far as is practicable, of its intrinsic values (Conservation Act, 1987).

Prohibited Activity*: Means an activity which a plan expressly prohibits and describes as an activity for which no resource consent shall be granted; and includes any activity prohibited by s105(2)(b) of the Historic Places Act 1993.

Protection: In relation to a resource, means its maintenance, so for as is practicable, in its current state, but includes:

  1. its restoration to some former state
  2. its augmentation, enhancement, or expansion (Conservation Act, 1987).

Public Benefit: Includes provision for a community’s social, economic and cultural well being, and health and safety.

Raft*: Any moored floating platform which is not self-propelled; and includes platforms that provide buoyancy support for the surfaces on which fish or marine vegetation are cultivated or for any cage or other device used to contain or restrain fish or marine vegetation; but does not include booms situated on lakes subject to artificial control which have been installed to ensure the safe operation of electricity generating facilities.

Rahui: Form of prohibition or ban.

Reasonable Mixing Zone: The zone within which a discharge would dissipate into the existing waters. The zone will be defined on a case-by-case basis by consideration of location, size, shape, outfall design and in-zone quality.

Regional Significance means one or more of the following:

  1. Matters or values of national significance.
  2. Issues and/or effects that are of concern to substantial parts of the regional community.
  3. Values associated with natural and physical resources or any structure, place or feature which are rare or unique within the Region.
  4. The existence of significant cross-boundary issues and cumulative effects, where resources or effects cross administrative boundaries, and where co-ordination or integration of policies, actions or decision-making is required.
  5. Matters or effects which are of greater than local significance to tangata whenua.

(Environment Waikato, 1996).

Reclamation: The deliberate act of filling in an area previously inundated by tide, so that the filled surface is raised above the level of mean high water spring. A reclamation does not have to be contiguous with the existing dry land.

Removal: In relation to vegetation includes pruning which does not result in killing the vegetation, and involves the removal of any pruned matter from the CMA.

Restoration: To re-establish and sustain one or more identified qualities that have been modified, damaged, reduced or lost, because of human actions, to a state representative of the ecosystem type. An identified quality may include biological and non-living features of a natural environment (e.g. water level regime in a wetland, or a specific or range of species) and/or natural ecosystem processes (e.g. nutrient, gas and water cycling, energy flow, and reproduction of component species) in either a whole natural system (ecosystem), or at a site within a larger system. Preference is given to using soft engineering methods natural materials and indigenous flora and fauna.

 RMA: Resource Management Act (1991) and Amendments.

Seabed: See definition for ‘Bed’.

Ship: Has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Resource Management Act 1991.

Significant: Means noteworthy, or of considerable amount, effect or importance1 (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Small Craft: A ship that is less than 30 metres in overall length, or a seaplane that is less than 30 metres in overall length and is on the water (Water Recreation Regulations, 1979).

Solid Waste: Any combination of domestic, industrial and commercial waste, including non-hazardous special wastes, also known as community waste (Environment Waikato, 1994).

Structure*: Any building, equipment, device, or other facility made by people and which is fixed to land; and includes any raft (Refer definition of land).

Substrata: A layer of rock or soil beneath the surface of the earth; a sedimentary bed.

Sustainable Management*: Managing the use, development, and protection of natural and physical resources in a way, or at a rate, which enables people and communities to provide for their social, economic, and cultural well-being and for their health and safety while -

  1. sustaining the potential of natural and physical resources (excluding minerals) to meet the reasonably foreseeable needs of future generations; and
  2. safeguarding the life-supporting capacity of air, water, soil, and ecosystems; and
  3. avoiding, remedying, or mitigating any adverse effects of activities on the environment.

Taiapure: A taiapure-local fishery declared under the Maori Fisheries Act 1989, Part IIIA (Environment Waikato, 1992).

Tangata Whenua: In relation to a particular area, means the iwi, hapu, or whanauthat holds mana whenua over that area.

Taonga: Treasure, property: taonga are prized and protected as sacred possessions of the tribe. The term carries a deep spiritual meaning and taonga may be things that cannot be seen or touched. Included for example are language, waahi tapu, waterways, fishing grounds and mountains (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Taonga Raranga*: Plants which produce material highly prized for use in weaving.

Tapu: Sacred, forbidden.

Tauranga Waka*: Canoe landing sites.

Temporary: Lasting for a duration of no longer than one week and does not recur for another month (Environment Waikato, 1993)

Territorial Authority: A city council or a district council (Local Government Act, 1974, section 2).

Territorial Sea*: Means the territorial sea of New Zealand as defined by section 3 of the Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act 1977 (12 nautical miles).

Tikanga Maaori*: Maaori customary values and practices.

Total net discharge of nitrogen (Nnet discharge): means the discharge of nitrogen from a marine farm that is calculated according to the following formula:

            Nnet discharge = Nfeed + Nother sources − Nfish stock − Nfish removed


• Nfeed is the quantity of nitrogen contained in feed added to the CMA;
• Nother sources is the quantity of nitrogen from sources other than feed added to the CMA, such as the addition of fingerlings or other nitrogen containing compounds;
• Nfish stock is the quantity of nitrogen contained in current stock;
• Nfish removed is the quantity of nitrogen contained in stock removed from the CMA.

Transition Zone: An area of transition normally contains elements or aspects of two or more recognised biological community types. A transition zone (or environment) includes areas that are characterised by species that have adapted to the difficult physical conditions that occur between the sea and land interfaces (above Mean Low Water Springs and inland as far as coastal influences extend) and include dune systems, Chenier plains, rocky platforms and cliffs, river mouth deltas and estuarine shorelines (Zostera flats, mangrove swamps, saltmarsh and wetlands) (Environment Waikato, 1996).

Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi)*: Has the same meaning as the word ‘Treaty’ as defined in section 2 of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 (Environment Waikato, 1992).

Urupa: Cemetery, ancestral burial grounds, burial site, tomb.

Waahi Tapu: A particular category of ancestral land or water which are held in the highest regard by tangata whenua. They can include places, sites, areas or objects that are tapu, sacred and special to an Iwi (Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 1992)

Wairua: Spirit (Reed. A, Concise Maori Dictionary, 1990).

Waka: Canoe (Reed. A, Concise Maori Dictionary, 1990).

Waste Hazardous Substance: Hazardous substances which are unwanted and economically unusable (Environment Waikato, 1994).

Wastes: Materials or substances that are no longer needed or useable, or have lost their economic value and therefore require disposal.


  1. Means water in all its physical forms whether flowing or not and whether over or under the ground:
  2. Includes fresh water, coastal water, and geothermal water:
  3. Does not include water in any form while in any pipe, tank, or cistern.

Water Quality: The physical, chemical and biological attributes of water that affect its ability to sustain environmental values and uses.

Wetland*: Includes permanently or intermittently wet areas, shallow water, and land water margins that support a natural ecosystem of plants and animals that are adapted to wet conditions.

Whakanoa: To uplift or remove tapu.